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Muhammed Mustafa SAV

 

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The Stairway of the Muhammed

 

Said Nursi

The Stairway of the Practices of the Prophet and Antidote for the Sickness of Innovations

      In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Now has come to you a Prophet from among yourselves; it grieves him that you should perish; ardently anxious is he over you; to the believers is he most kind and merciful.

       

      [The First Station of this verse is the Highway of the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH), and its Second Station, the Stairway of the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH).]

       

      But if they turn away, say: "God suffices me, there is no god but He; in Him do I place my trust-He the Sustainer of the Throne (of Glory Supreme!" * say: "If you do love God, follow me: God will love you and forgive you your sins; .for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. "

Of the hundreds of points concerning these two sublime verses, eleven will be explained concisely.

  • FIRST POINT

    The Most Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) said:

"Whoever adheres to my practices when my Community is corrupted shall receive the reward of a hundred martyrs.”

Yes, following the Practices of the Prophet is certainly most valuable. And at times when innovations are prevalent following them is even more valuable. And particularly when the Prophet's Community is corrupted, to comply with a small matter of conduct of the Practices signifies a powerful belief and fear of God. Following the Practices directly recalls the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace), and that recollection and remembrance is transformed into recollection of the Divine Presence. The moment the Practices are complied with in even the least significant dealings, in the conduct of eating, drinking, or sleeping, such habitual, natural acts become meritorious acts of worship in compliance with the Shari'a. For through such commonplace actions a person thinks of following the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) and conceives of them as conduct of the Shari'a. Then he recalls that he is the owner of the Shari'a. And from that his heart turns to Almighty God, the True Lawgiver, and he gains a sort of sense of the Divine Presence and worship.

And so, due to this mystery, one who makes it his practice to follow the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) transforms all his acts into worship, and may make his whole life fruitful and yielding of reward.

  • SECOND POINT

Imam-i Rabbani, Ahmad Faruqi, (May God be pleased with him) said:

"While traversing the degrees in my spiritual journeying, I saw the most brilliant, splendid, subtle, and sound among the levels of the splendid to be those who took following the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) as the basis of their way. Even the ordinary saints of that level appeared to be more splendid than the highest saints of the other levels."

Yes, Imam-i Rabbani, the Regenerator of the Second Millenium (May God be pleased with him) speaks the truth. One who takes the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) as the basis rises to the station of being beloved of God under the. shadow of God's Beloved.

  • THIRD POINT

At a time this poor Said was trying to emerge from the Old Said, his intellect and heart were floundering among truths in a terrible spiritual storm resulting from lack of a guide and the pride of his evil-commanding soul. They were being tossed around, rising and falling, sometimes from the Pleiades to the ground, sometimes from the ground to the Pleiades.

At that time I observed that like qibla-directing compasses showing the course to be followed in ships, each of the matters of the Practices, and even small points of conduct, were like electric switches among innumerable hazardous, dark ways. And when, at the time on that spiritual journeying I saw myself under awesome pressure overwhelmed by truly burdensome loads, I followed the matters of the Practices touching on that situation, I experienced a lightness as though all my burdens were being lifted from me. Through submitting to them, I was saved from doubts and scruples, that is, from anxieties like: "Is such a course of action right, is it beneficial, I wonder?" Whenever I drew back my hand, I looked and saw that the pressure was intense. There were numerous ways, but it could not be known where they led. The load was heavy, and I was utterly powerless. My view was short, and the way, dark. Whenever I adhered to the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH), the way was lit up and seen to be safe. I experienced a state of mind as though the load was being lightened and the pressure lifted. And so at those times I confirmed through my own observations what Imam-i Rabbani had said.

  • FOURTH POINT

At one time, I saw myself in a strange world resulting from a state of mind produced by contemplating death and affirming the proposition "Death is a reality," and from the transience and passing of the world. I saw myself as a corpse standing at the head of three huge corpses.

O n e : I was like a tombstone at the head of the immaterial corpse of all living creatures, with which I was connected through my life and which had entered the grave of the past.

T h e S e c o n d : In the graveyard of the globe of the earth on the face this century, which was the tombstone at the head of the vast corpse buried in the grave of the past of all the species of living creatures, with which mankind is connected through its life, I was a point that would be swiftly erased, an ant that would swiftly die.

T h e T h i r d : Since the universe is certain to die on Doomsday, that is how I saw it. And in addition to seeing myself in terror at the death agonies of that vast corpse, in wonder and astonishment at its death, my own death too, which is certain to occur in the future, appeared to be happening at that time. In accordance with And if they turn away (to the end of the verse), on my death all beings, all my beloveds, turned their backs on me, abandoning me and leaving me alone. My spirit was being driven towards the future on the side of post-eternity, which resembles a boundless ocean. Whether it wanted or not, it had to be cast into the ocean.

And so, while in that most strange and sorrowful state of mind, help reached me from belief and the Qur'an; the verse,

      But if they turn away, say: "God suffices me, there is no god but He; in Him do I place my trust-He the Sustainer of the Throne (of Glory) Supreme!"

came to my assistance, and became like a safe and trusty boat. My spirit boarded the verse with complete confidence and joy. I understood that besides the verse's explicit meaning, an allusive meaning had consoled me so that I had found tranquillity and serenity.

Yes, its explicit meaning says to the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace): "If the people of misguidance turn away, shun your Shari'a and Practices and do not heed the Qur'an, do not worry. Say: `Almighty God is enough for me. I place my trust in Him. He will raise up others in your place who will follow me. The throne of His rule encompasses everything; the rebellious cannot escape outside its bounds, nor do those who seek assistance remain unaided."' While its allusive meaning says this:

"O man! And O leader and guide of mankind! If all beings leave you and depart for non-existence on the road of transience; if living beings part from you and hasten down the road of death; if people abandon you and enter the graveyard; if the people of neglect and misguidance do not heed you and fall into darkness; do not be anxious. Say: Almighty God suffices me. Since He exists, everything exists. And so, those who have departed have not gone to non-existence; they have departed for another of His realms. And out of His infinite generosity and from among His innumerable soldiers, that Owner of the Sublime Throne sends others in their place. And those who have entered the graveyard have not been annihilated; they have departed for another world. He will send other officials in their place. And He can send obedient servants who follow the true path in place of those who fall into misguidance. Since it is thus, He takes the place of everything. All things cannot take the place of His regard and attention."

And so, by means of this allusive meaning, the three awesome corpses which filled me with terror took on another form. They became a wisdom-displaying passage, an instructive excursion, a journeying for the performance of duties, a demobilization and a charging with duties, whereby the universe is shaken up, and comes and goes.

  • FIFTH POINT The sublime verse,

Say: "If you do love God, follow me: God will love you

proclaims in definite fashion just how necessary and important it is to follow the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH). Yes, among the syllogisms of logic, this verse is the most powerful and certain of the sort called hypothetical or conditional syllogisms. It is as follows:

As an example of a hypothetical syllogism it is said in logic: "If the sun comes out, it will be daytime." For a positive result it is said: "The sun has come out. It therefore points to the conclusion that it is now daytime." For a negative result, it is said: "It is not daytime. One therefore draws the conclusion that the sun has not come out." According to logic, these two conclusions, negative and positive, are definite.

In just the same way, the above verse says: "If you love God, you will follow God's Beloved. If you do not follow him, it points to the conclusion that you do not love God." If a person loves God, it entails following the Practices of God's Beloved. Yes, one who believes in Almighty God will certainly obey Him. And the most acceptable, the most direct, and the shortest among the ways of obeying Him is without doubt the way God's Beloved showed and followed.

Yes, it is necessary and self-evident that the All-Generous One of Beauty, Who fills the universe with so many bounties, should want thanks from conscious creatures in return for the bounties. And clearly that All-Wise One of Glory, Who adorns the universe with so many miracles of art, will make the most excellent of conscious creatures His addressee and interpreter, and herald and leader of His servants. And certainly and self-evidently that All-Beauteous One of Perfection, Who makes the universe reflect the innumerable manifestations of His beauty and perfections, will give the most perfect worshipful stance to the one who is the most comprehensive and perfect measure and means of displaying His beauty, perfection, Names, and art, which He clearly loves and wants to display; He will make his conduct a fine example to others and encourage them to follow him so that his fine conduct may appear in others too.

I n S h o r t : Love of God necessitates and results in following the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH). How fortunate the person whose share of following them is great! And woe on the person who does not appreciate the Practices and embarks on innovations! 

  • SIXTH POINT

The Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) said: "All innovations are misguidance, and all misguidence leads to Hell." That is to say, according to the verse,

      This day have I perfected, for you your religion,

not to care for the rules of the Illustrious Shari'a and principles of the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) after they have been completed and perfected, and adopt new creations, or God forbid, create innovations, which infers considering them to be deficient, is misguidance, it is the Fire.

There are degrees in the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH): some are compulsory; these may not be given up. This sort are described in detail in the Illustrious Shari'a. They are incontestable and can in no way be changed. Another sort are voluntary, and these are of two sorts:

One sort are those Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) that concern worship. They too are described in the books of the Shari'a, and to change them is innovation. The other sort are called "conduct" (Adab), and are mentioned in the books of the Prophet's biography. Opposition to them cannot be called innovation, but it is opposition of a sort to the Prophet's conduct and means not benefiting from their light and true courtesy. This sort is to follow the Noble Prophet's (Upon whom be blessings and peace) actions in customary, natural acts and dealings, which are known through unanimous reports. For example, there are numerous Practices showing the conduct of speaking, and explaining the principles of the conduct of eating, drinking, and sleeping, and concerning social intercourse. Practices of this sort are called "conduct." One who follows this conduct transforms his habitual actions into worship and receives significant effulgence from the conduct. Practising the smallest aspect of such conduct recalls the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace), and imparts a light to the heart.

The most important among the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) are those which are the symbols of Islam and connected with the `marks of Islam.' The marks of Islam are worship, concern the community, and quite simply are general rights of a sort. As the whole community benefits from one person doing them, so on the person giving them up, the whole community is responsible. There can be no hypocrisy in the performance of marks of this sort, and they should be proclaimed. Even if they are of the voluntary sort, they are still more important than personal obligatory acts.

  • SEVENTH POINT

The Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) are courtesy. There is no matter among them beneath which a light, and courtesy, is not to be found. The Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) said: "My Sustainer taught me good conduct, and how well he taught me." Yes, one who studies the Prophet's biography and knows his Practices will certainly understand that Almighty God gathered together in His Beloved all the varieties of courtesy and good conduct. One who gives up the Practices abandons courtesy. He verifies the rule, "The ill-mannered person is deprived of Divine favour," and is discourteous in a way that causes him loss.

Q u e s t i o n : How can there be courtesy in the face of the Knower of All Things, Who sees and knows everything and from Whom nothing can be hidden? Situations which cause shame or embarrasment cannot be concealed from Him. One sort of courtesy is covering the necessary members and veiling states which are distasteful. But nothing can be hidden from the sight of the Knower of All Things.

The Answer:

Firstly: Giving it the greatest importance, the Glorious Creator wants to show His art as beautiful; He veils detestable things; and He attracts attention to His bounties by decorating them. So too, He wants to show His creatures and servants as beautiful to other conscious beings. Their appearing in ugly situations is a sort of rebellion against His Names like Beauteous, Adorner, Subtle, and Wise, and is contrary to courtesy. Thus, the courtesy of the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) is to assume a manner of pure courtesy within the bounds of the Glorious Maker's Names.

Secondly: As a doctor, a doctor may examine the most private member of someone who is canonically a stranger to him, and if necessary it may be shown to him, and this may not be said to be discourteous. Indeed, it may be said that the conduct of medicine requires this. But the same doctor may not examine such a private member as a man, or under the title of preacher or teacher, and courtesy cannot issue a fatwa permitting it to be shown. To show it to him in such a way would be shameless.

In just the same way, the Glorious Maker has numerous Names, and each Name has a different manifestation. For example, just as the Name of Oft-Forgiving requires the existence of sins and Veiler, the existence of faults, so too, the Name of Beauteous does not wish to see ugliness. Names pertaining to Divine beauty and perfection like Subtle, Munificent, All-Wise, and All-Compassionate require that beings be in the most beautiful form and best possible situations. And those Names pertaining to beauty and perfection want to display their beauties in the view of angels, spirit beings, jinn and man through the beautiful states and fine conduct of beings. Thus, the conduct of the Practices are the signs of this elevated conduct, and its principles and samples.

  • EIGHTH POINT

Following the verse, Now has come to you a Prophet (to the end of the verse), which shows the Noble Prophet's (Upon whom be blessings and peace) perfect kindness and compassion towards his Community, the verse, But if they turn away, say: "God suffices me... " says:

"O mankind! And O Muslims! You should understand how lacking in conscience it is and how unreasonable to turn away from the Practices and the decrees the Noble Prophet (PBUH) conveys as though casting aspersions on his self-evident compassion, for he guides you with infinite kindness, expending all his strength for your benefit, and curing with his Practices your spiritual wounds.

"And O compassionate Prophet and clement Messenger! If they do not recognize this vast compassion of yours and out of their foolishness, turn their backs and do not listen to you, do not be anxious. The All-Glorious One, under Whose command are the cohorts of the heavens and earth, and the sovereignty of Whose dominicality rules over the Sublime allencompassing Throne, is sufficient for you. He will muster around you His true, obedient troops, and make them heed you and accept your decrees!"

Yes, there is no matter of the Shari'a of Muhammed and Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) in which is not found numerous instances of wisdom. This wretched one claims and is ready to prove this, despite all his faults and impotence. Furthermore, the seventy to eighty parts of the Risale-i Nur so far written are like seventy to eighty truthful witnesses testifying to how full of wisdom and truth are the matters of the Practices of Muhammed and his Shari'a (Upon whom be blessings and peace). If I was capable of it and they had been written, not seventy treatises on this subject, but seven thousand could not completely describe those instances of wisdom.

Moreover, I have observed and experienced perhaps a thousand times in my own self that the principles and matters of the Shari'a and Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) are each most beneficial remedies for sicknesses of the spirit, mind, and heart, and particularly for social sicknesses, and that matters put forward by philosophy cannot take their place, and to an extent I have made known to others in the Risale-i Nur what I have experienced. If anyone doubts this claim of mine, let them refer to the parts of the Risale-i Nur and see for themselves.

It may be seen from this just how profitable it is to try to follow as far as is possible the Practices of such a person, and how advantageous for eternal life, and how beneficial for worldly life.

  • NINTH POINT

Actually following to the letter every aspect of the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) is only bestowed on the highest of the elite. If it is not possible to follow them in practice, everyone can seek to do so by intention, purpose, and by supporting them and being biased towards them. In any event one is compelled to follow the obligatory and compulsory sorts. And even if there is no sin involved in giving up the Practices which are `recommended', it results in considerable loss of merit. And if they are changed, it is a great error. When the Practices are followed in habitual actions and dealings, such acts become worship. While if they are not followed, it is not to be reproved, but the benefit from the light of the daily conduct of God's Beloved is less.

New creations in the ordinances concerning worship are innovation, and since innovations are opposed to the verse,

      This day have I completed for you your religion,

they are rejected. But if they are the recitations and invocations of the Sufi way, on condition their origins are the Book and Sunna, and even if they are in different forms and manners, their basis and principles do not oppose the Practices of the Prophet or change them, they are not innovations. Certainly some scholars classed a number of these as innovations, but called them "commendable innovations." Imam-i Rabbani, the Regenerator of the Second Millenium, (May God be pleased with him) said:

"On my spiritual journeying, I saw that words narrated from the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) were luminous, shining with the rays of his Practices. Whereas when I saw brilliant and powerful invocations and states not narrated from him, there was no light on them. The most brilliant of this sort was not equal to the least of the first sort. I understood from this that the rays of the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) are an elixir. Also, for those seeking light, the Practices are sufficient: there is no need to seek light outside them."

This statement of a hero of reality and the Shari'a such as that shows that the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) are the foundation stone of the happiness of both worlds and the source and spring of all attainment and perfection.

  O our Sustainer! We believe in what You have revealed to Your Prophet; then write us down among those who bear witness.

  • TENTH POINT

    In the verse,

Say: "If you do love God, fallow me: God will love you is a miraculous conciseness, for many phrases have been included in these three phrases. It is as follows:

The verse says: "If you believe in God (May His Glory be exalted), you will surely love Him. Since you love God, you will act in the manner He loves. To do that, you must resemble the one God loves. And he may be resembled by following him. Whenever you follow him, God will love you too. Anyway you have to love God so that He shall love you."

These phrases form only a brief and concise meaning of the verse. It means that the most exalted goal for man is to receive Almighty God's love. The verse shows that the way of achieving this elevated aim is by following God s Beloved and his Practices. If at this station Three Points are proved, the above truth will become completely clear.

F i r s t P o i n t : Man was created with an infinite innate love for the universe's Creator. For included in human nature is love of beauty, worship of perfection, and love of bestowal. His love increases in accordance with the degrees of beauty, perfection, and bestowal, reaching the furthest degrees of ecstatic love.

Furthermore, contained in tiny man's tiny heart may be a love as great as the universe. Yes, the fact that writings equivalent to a library of thousands of books may be inscribed in the faculty of memory, which is a coffer of the heart's the size of a lentil, shows that the human heart may contain the universe and bear love that great.

Since human nature has such an infinite capacity to love bestowal, beauty, and perfection; and since the universe's Creator possesses infinite sacred beauty, the certain existence of which is self-evidently established by His works to be seen in the universe; and since He possesses infinite holy perfection, the existence of which is necessarily proved by the embroideries of His art apparent in beings; and since He is the owner of infinite bounties, the existence of which is certainly, indeed, observedly, established by the infinite varieties of His bestowal and bounties to be observed in living creatures; these surely demand infinite love from man, who is the most comprehensive, the most needy, the most thoughtful, and the most yearning of conscious beings.

Indeed, all human beings are capable of infinite love for the All-Glorious Creator, and in the face of His beauty, perfection, and bestowal, the Creator is more deserving than anyone to be loved. All the varieties of love and intense attachment a believing human being has for his life, immortality, and existence, his world, his self, and other beings, are droplets of his capacity to love God. His various intense emotions are transformations of that capacity of his to love, and distillations of it in other forms. It is clear that just as man takes pleasure at his own happiness, so does he receive pleasure at the happiness of others to whom he is attached. And just as he loves one who saves him from disaster, so does he love one who saves those he loves. As a consequence of this state of mind, if a person thinks only of this out of all the varieties of Divine bounties bestowed on all men, he would say:

"My Creator saved me from non-existence, which is eternal darkness, and gave me a beautiful world like this one. Then when the time comes for me to die, He will again save me from non-existence, which is eternal extinction, and from annihilation, and bestow on me in an eternal realm an everlasting and most magnificent world. And like He has bestowed on me external and inner senses and feelings with which to benefit from all the varieties of delights and good things of that world and to roam around it and make excursions, so He also bestows innumerable bounties on all my relations and friends and fellow-men, whom I much love and to whom I am attached. Those bounties are also mine in a way, because I am happy and received pleasure at their happiness. Since in accordance with the rule, `Man is the slave of bestowal,' everyone in a sense worships benevolence, certainly in the face of such innumerable favours, since I have a heart as great as the universe, it necessitates its being filled with love at those favours, and I want to fill it. If in fact I am unable to love that much, I can do so through capacity, by intention, by belief, by acceptance, appreciation, longing, taking the part of, and by will." And so on.

Analogies may be drawn with the love for bestowal we have briefly alluded to here for the love man feels for beauty and perfection. As for the unbelievers, they are infinitely hostile because of their unbelief, and even bear a wrongful and insulting enmity towards the universe and beings.

S e c o n d P o i n t : Love of God necessitates following the Practices of Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace). For to love God is to do what pleases Him. And the things that please Him are manifested in most perfect form in the person of Muhammed (PBUH). There are two aspects of resembling Muhammed's (PBUH) actions and deeds.

The First: Obeying Almighty God's commands in respect of loving Him and within the bounds of what pleases Him necessitates following them, for the most perfect leader in such matters is the person of Muhammed (PBUH).

The Second: Since the person of Muhammed (PBUH) is a most important means to innumerable Divine favours for man, he is surely worthy of boundless love for the sake of Almighty God. If man is capable of resembling someone he loves, by nature he wants to do so. This definitely necessitates that those who love God's Beloved try to resemble him by following his Illustrious Practices.

T h i r d P o i n t : Almighty God has boundless love, just as He has infinite compassion. As He makes Himself loved in infinite fashion through all the fine qualities and adornment of the creatures in the universe, so He also loves in particular conscious beings who respond with love to His making His artefacts loved. It may be clearly understood how important and exalted an aim it is to try to attract the love of a Being one manifestation of Whose mercy are all the subtle wonders and good things and delights and bounties of Paradise. Since it is stated clearly that His love is won only through following the Practices of Muhammed (PBUH), it is certain that it should be man's greatest aim and his most important duty.

  • ELEVENTH POINT

    This consists of Three Matters.

F i r s t M a t t e r : The sources of the Noble Prophet's Illustrious Practices are three: his words, his acts, and his conduct. And there are three categories of each of these three: obligatory, voluntary, and laudable.

It is imperative to follow those that are obligatory and compulsory, and there are penalties and punishment for giving them up. Everyone is charged with following them. As for the voluntary sort, as laudable, the believers are again charged with following them, but there is no penalty or punishment for giving them up. However, there is great merit in acting in accordance with them and following them. And to change them is innovation, misguidance, and a great error. To follow and imitate the Prophet's customary actions is extremely laudable and in accordance with wisdom, and is beneficial for both personal life and social life and for human kind. For in all his habitual actions are numerous things beneficial for life, and furthermore, through following them, such conduct and actions become like worship.

Yes, since as both friend and foe agree, the person of Muhammed (PBUH) manifested the highest degrees of moral virtues; and since as all are agreed, he is the most famous and excellent individual in the human race; and since as indicated by his thousands of miracles, and testified to by the World of Islam that he founded and its achievements, and affirmed by the truths of the Qur'an of which he was the herald and interpreter, he was the most excellent Perfect Man and most excellent guide; and since as the fruit of following him, millions of the people of perfection have advanced through the degrees of attainment and reached the happiness of both worlds; for sure his Practices and actions are the finest examples to be followed, and the safest guides, and the soundest laws to be taken as principles. Happy is the one whose share of following the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) is great. While those who are lazy and do not follow them suffer vast loss, and those who consider them to be unimportant commit a great crime, while if they criticize them, which infers denying them, it is serious misguidance.

    S e c o n d M a t t e r : Almighty God decrees in the All-Wise Qur'an, And you (stand) on an exalted standard of character.

According to sound narrations, when a distinguished Companion like Aisha the Veracious (May God be pleased with her) described the Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace), she would say: "His character is the Qur'an. "That is to say, "Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace) is the exemplar of the fine moral qualities that the Qur'an expounds. He conforms to them more than anyone, and his nature was created in accordance with them."

Thus, while the deeds, states, words, and actions of such a person are each worthy to be a model for mankind, how unfortunate are those heedless people of his Community who believe in him yet give no importance to his Practices or want to change them-as even lunatics may understand.

T h i r d M a t t e r : Since the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) was created with a most moderate character and in the most perfect form, his actions and rest all proceeded on moderation and equanimity. His biography shows clearly that in all his actions he proceeded with moderation and equanimity, avoiding excess and negligence.

Yes, the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) conformed completely to the command:

 

    Therefore stand firm (in the Straight Way) as you are commanded,

and therefore moderation is apparent in all his acts, words, and conduct. For example, free of wiliness and stupidity, which are the excess and negligence, like the corruption and darkness, of the power of reason, his reasoning faculty always worked from the point of wisdom, the middle way and means of moderation. So too, far from rage and cowardice, which are the corruption of the power of anger and its excess and negligence, his power of anger always acted with sacred courage, which is the middle way and means of moderation of that power. And so too, purified of licentiousness and frigidity, which are the excess and negligence of the power of animal appetites and its corruption, his power of passion always took chasteness, the means of moderation of that power, as guide, at the degree of maximum virtuousness. And so on... In all his Practices, daily conduct, and injunctions of his Shari'a, he chose the way of moderation, and avoided excess and negligence, and wastefulness and prodigality, which are wrongdoing and darkness. He avoided wastefulness absolutely and took frugality as his guide in his speech even, and in eating and drinking. Thousands of books have been written describing the details of his truth. In accordance with "A hint is enough for the wise," we make do with this drop from the ocean and cut the story short here.

      O God, grant blessings on the one who gathered together in his person all fine moral qualities, and manifested the mystery of;

      "And you (stand) on an exalted standard of character, " and who said: "Whoever adheres to my Practices when my community is corrupted, shall receive the reward of a hundred martyrs. "

      And they shall say: "Praise be to God, Who has guided us to this (felicity); never could we have found guidance, had it not been for the guidance of God; indeed it was the truth that the prophets of our Sustainer brought to us. "

      Glory be unto You! We have no knowledge save that which You have taught us; indeed You are All-Knowing, All-Wise.